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sábado, 10 de septiembre de 2011

OperaEsencial: DONIZETTI: Roberto Devereaux (Sills)

Una de las 3 óperas de la Trilogia Tudor, junto a Anna Bolena y Maria Stuarda (las óperas que Donizetti compuso en torno a la figura de Isabel I de Inglaterra), disponibles las 3 interpretadas por la GRAN Beverly Sills. Irrepetible

Roberto Devereux es un drama lírico en tres actos con música de Gaetano Donizetti y libreto de Salvatore Cammarano, basado en Elisabeth d'Angleterre de François Andelot, estrenado el 29 de octubre de 1837 en el Teatro San Carlo de Nápoles protagonizada por Giuseppina Ronzi De Begnis, seguido por Venecia, con Caroline Ungher, Lisboa (1838), París con Giulia Grisi.

En España, se estrenó en el Teatro de la Santa Cruz de Barcelona, en 1838. En 1843 lo cantó Giuseppina Strepponi en Boloña. Se estrenó en La Habana en 1839, en Nueva York en 1849, en Buenos Aires en 1854, en Viena en 1844 y Londres en 1841 con la Grisi y en 1845 por Pauline Viardot García en San Petersburgo. El último revival fue en Pavia en 1882.1

Uno de los más difíciles roles de la literatura belcantista, Elisabetta d'Inghilterra, fue exhumado en 1964 por la soprano turca Leyla Gencer. Fue seguida por Montserrat Caballé en 1965 y en 1970 por Beverly Sills, la primera en cantarla completa. En 1994 fue asumida por Edita Gruberová y en 2007 por Dimitra Theodossiu.

Although not frequently performed today, it contains some of Donizetti's best vocal writing, some of it "first rate" (the end of Act 1's duet between Roberto and Sara beginning with Dacchè tornasti, ahi misera ("Since you returned, ah miserable me!"), while the brief second act is "superb"[2]. The opera is raw and emotional; it is a powerful vehicle for the soprano. Some of the highlights include the Act 1 duet between Elizabeth and Robert, Nascondi, frena i palpiti ("Hide and check your wild beating / oh my unhappy heart"). The final scene is one of the most dramatic and difficult in bel canto opera. As Elizabeth is going mad with the death of her lover, Quel sangue versato ("That spilled blood / rises to heaven") pushes romantic opera to the limits of melodic expression and has been described as "mak(ing) a powerful end to one of Donizetti's finest and most affecting operas.[2]


Place: London, England
Time: 1598, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I

Act 1

Scene 1: The Great Hall at Westminster

Sara, Duchess of Nottingham, cries alone while reading a book. The Ladies of the court express concern, but she replies that she is happy, while privately revealing her sadness. Elizabeth enters and states that, at the insistence of Nottingham, she has agreed to see Roberto once again, now that he has returned from Ireland accused of treason. To Sara's gradual dismay, the queen reveals to her Elizabeth’s love for Roberto. Cecil enters and announces that Parliament is waiting for an answer from the queen regarding the charges against Roberto, since that body regards her as being too lenient towards him.

Roberto enters and, in a conversation overheard by the increasingly distraught Sara, Elizabeth declares her love for him. Now alone together, Elizabeth gives Roberto a ring as a pledge of his safety should he ever return it to her and, increasingly jealous, demands of Roberto that he name the woman he loves and then whether there is someone whom he loves. He denies that he loves anyone, and the queen leaves.

Nottingham, Roberto's friend and supporter, enters and the two men discuss Roberto's situation and Nottingham's concerns about his wife's behaviour after he has observed her embroidering a blue scarf. The two men are interrupted by Cecil demanding that Nottingham attend a meeting of the Peers of the Realm.

Scene 2: Sara's Appartments

Sara is alone when Roberto enters, declaring her to be faithless because she has married Nottingham while he was in Ireland. She defends herself saying that it was the queen's idea and that she was forced to do her bidding. At the same time, seeing the ring on Roberto's finger, she assumes it to be a love token from the queen, and tells him that they must never see each other again. In a final duet (Dacchè tornasti, ahi misera – "Since you returned, ah miserable me!") each declares love for the other and they accept that they must say goodbye.

Act 2

The Great Hall at Westminster

The Queen approaches Cecil to find out what has been decided. Cecil declares that the sentence is death. The queen, asking Raleigh why the whole process took so long, learns that Nottingham had a scarf in his possession which he resisted giving over. It is handed to her. Nottingham enters and pleads for Roberto's life, insisting that he is innocent, but the queen continues to describe how she knows that Roberto has been unfaithful and, when he is brought him, confronts him, showing him the scarf. Nottingham sees it as well and recognizes it. Furious, he declares that he will have vengeance while, at the same time, Elizabeth offers Roberto his freedom if he reveals the name of her rival. He refuses and she signs the death warrant, announcing that a canon shot will be heard as the axe falls. Nottingham fumes that the axe is not a suitable punishment.

Act 3

Scene 1: Sara's Appartments

Alone, Sara receives Robert's ring along with a letter from him. In it, he tells her to take the ring to Elizabeth and beg for mercy. Before she can leave, Nottingham arrives and reads the letter. Although she protests her innocence, he prevents her from leaving. They both hear the funeral march for Robert as he is led to the Tower, and Nottingham leaves to enact his revenge on Robert.

Scene 2: The Tower of London

In his cell, Robert ponders as to why it appears that his ring has not been received by the queen. But, he refuses to betray Sara, and when Cecil arrives at the door of the cell, it is not to free Roberto but to take him to his execution. He is led away.

Scene 3: The Great Hall at Westminster

Elizabeth is mournful about the pending death of her lover and wonders why Sara is not there to give her comfort. Cecil announces that Robert is on his way to the block, and Sara arrives disheveled. She gives Elizabeth the ring along with confessing her guilt at being the queen's rival. In vain, the queen tries to stop the execution, but they hear the cannon announcing Robert's death. After Nottingham has arrived Elizabeth demands to know why he prevented the ring from being brought to her. He replies: "Blood I wanted, and blood I got!" Elizabeth is haunted by the headless corpse of Robert, and longs for her own death, announcing that James VI of Scotland (son of Mary Queen of Scots) will be king. Alone, she kisses Robert's ring.

Donizetti Gaetano – Roberto Devereux (Charles Mackerras, Beverly Sills, Beverly Wolff)
Classical | 3 CD | EAC | APE+CUE+LOG | Covers | 615 MB | RS.com | TT CD1:65’55; CD2:69’50
Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, Charles Mackerras
Recording 1969 | Released: 2001 | Label: Westminster
Libretto: Salvatore Cammarano
Elizabeth, Queen of England – Beverly Sills
Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex – Robert Ilosfalvy
Duke of Nottingham – Peter Glossop
Sara, Duchess of Nottingham – Beverly Wolff
Lord Cecil – Kenneth MacDonald
Sir Walter Raleigh – Don Garrard
A Page – Gwynne Howell
A Servant of Nottingham – Richard Van Allan
Ambrosian Opera Chorus
chorus master – John McCarthy
Royal Philharmonic Orchestra
conductor Charles Mackerras

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Y aqui podéis ver que era realmente una excelente actriz, en la última escena de la ópera en directo:

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